Ostheoatritis: Causes, types, risks and Treatment


Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease (DJD), is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is more likely to develop as people age.

A type of arthritis that occurs when flexible tissue at the ends of bones wears down . The wearing down of the protective tissue at the ends of bones (cartilage) occurs gradually and worsens over time.


Primary: Most common, generalized, primarily affects the fingers, thumbs, spine, hips, knees, and the great (big) toes.

Secondary: Occurs with a pre-existing joint abnormality, including injury or trauma, such as repetitive or sports-related; inflammatory arthritis.


AGE :- as well as secondary causes such as inflammatory arthritis and prior injury/ trauma, several other risk factors increase the chance of developing osteoarthritis including obesity, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, sex, and genetics.

OBESITY a risk factor for osteoarthritis, particularly of the knee.

DIABETES AND HYPERLIPIDEMIA  (elevated lipids/cholesterol) contribute to the inflammatory response within the body, increasing the risk of osteoarthritis.

DECREASED ESTROGEN  as experienced by post-menopausal women increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis

HEREDITY can play a role in osteoarthritis


Mild to moderate symptoms are usually well managed withMedications (topical pain medicines and oral analgesics including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, NSAIDS).

  • Exercise.

Intermittent hot and cold packs

Weight loss (if overweight).

Healthy eating, managing diabetes and cholesterol.

Supportive devices such as braces, orthotics, shoe inserts, cane, or walker.

Intraarticular injection therapies (steroid, hyaluronic acid “gel”).

Complementary and alternative medicine strategies, including vitamins and supplements.

Surgery may be helpful to relieve pain and restore function when other medical treatments are ineffective or have been exhausted, especially with advanced Osteoarthritis.

The goals of treatment are to:

  1. Decrease joint pain and stiffness and delay further progression.
    1. Improve mobility and function.
    1. Increase patients’ quality of life.

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